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大学英语词汇语法讲义

第一部分

[日期:2008-03-13]   [字体: ]
第一部分、语法讲义

2003年6月的四级考试题型变革,把长期以来作为重点考查的语法减至一题。非谓语动词、虚拟语气、关系代词、时态语态等等这些长期以来考点已经被打入冷宫。之后的考试语法题基本消失。我们在配置自己的有限备考时间也应有所调整。

语法之于英语学习的重要性实际上并没有如何降低,在语言知识运用(完形填空等)、作文阅读长难句分析方面起到的作用是不可替代的。因此我们要抓住复习的重点,集中突破在各个题型最容易出问题的语法点。

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该部分将主要结合阅读理解长难句分析来快速掌握语法的精髓。很多时候,我们准确定位之后,由于和问题相关的句子长、难,造成最终理解错误而选错答案,这非常可惜,连前面定位的时间都浪费了。能否快速有效的抓住定位句子的主干大意和次要细节实际已经成为阅读分数高低的一个关键问题。

第一节、解决四级英语长难句的意义

1、阅读,抓不住句子重点,在一个句子上浪费太多时间。最后根据不完整的理解,碰运气乱猜答案。

2、翻译,提笔不知从哪里下手;胡乱写几行,卷面乱,不知所云,影响印象分。

(一)长难句到底难在哪里? --几句废话般的常识。

1)结构复杂,逻辑层次多;

2)单词意思常需根据上下文判断;

3)代词的指代关系复杂;

4)并列成分多;

5)修饰语多,特别是后置定语很长;

6)习惯搭配。

注:以上情况有可能单独出现,更多是“团伙作案”。

(二)长难句的破解的几个基本要点

·把握规律(按照所讲的基本方法)

·充分利用现有语法、词汇知识,提高知识的产出效率。

·破解核心是化繁为简,化难为易。

(三)长难句解决的具体步骤

1、抓主干

2、理顺主从句子关系。

(四)分析句子成分的详细过程

1)找出全句主谓宾或主系表,即句子的主干;

2)找出句中所有的谓语结构、非谓语结构、介词短语和从句的引导词;

3)分析从句和短语的功能,例如,是否为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句或状语从句等;以及词,短语和从句之间的关系;

4)分析句子中是否有固定词组或固定搭配、插入语等其他成分。

第二节、长句速读

同位语和较长的后置定语(如人物身份,句子中间的非限制性定语从句),很长的专有名词(如机构名称)等。这些信息需要用跳读(skip)的方法,略去不读。

在文章里,经常会出现此类文字信息,目的是为了干扰视线。实际,没有必要去弄明白某人是什么大学的什么教授,也不必急着去了解美国一个部门全称或缩写是什么具体意思,因为题目中极少直接考这样的细节信息。做题时即使需要此类信息,利用人名或其它专有名词都是开头字母大写的特征很容易找到。

例如:

People assume that office politics involves some manipulative (工于心计的)behavior,” says Deborah Comer, an assistant professor of management at Hofstra University. (2004年6月)

A recent study, published in last week’s Journal of the American Medical Association, offers a picture of how risky it is to get a lift from a teenage driver. (2003年9月)

划线部分的信息可以一扫而过,目光不需要在上面停留细读。

第二节、长句解剖法

一、找长句主干,常需反其道而行之。

·你能一眼挑出长句的主谓宾/主系表?

·主语易寻、谓语难找!

·怎么办?

·先去枝叶,主干立现!

方法:去枝去叶;水落石出

·枝:各类从句,标志有;

·名词和代词后面的That; who; when; where等关系词、连接词。

·叶:

·1. 各类插入语,标志为两个逗号。

·2. 各类介词短语。

句型一:从句连环套

·最麻烦的句子--从句套从句怎么办?

·破解法:使用汉语连环套,顺而解之。

·基本结构:A, AB, BC, CD

The child A

A who is raised in an environment B

B where there are many stimuli C

C which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses D

will experience GREater intellectual development.

建立汉语接龙(连环套)

·A: 孩子A

·AB:孩子A生活在环境里B

·BC:环境里B有刺激因素C

·CD:刺激因素C开发他/她做出正确反应的能力D

·大家发现了什么规律?

·接龙连接处为先行词和引导词,两者在逻辑含意上指的是同一事物!

这样简化的目的在于减少信息处理的复杂程度,加快解题速度。

下一步就是根据英语句子的意思,调整汉语的句子结构。

本句的解决方案是快速合并相同信息。

至此,我们经历了一个拆分(英语)过程。

句型二:短语众多

1. 标志很明显,快刀斩乱麻,剔除所有介词短语,类似同位语的成分。

2. 合理预测句子主干的走向。

3. 依据是什么?

4. 固定搭配的一部分!通常是比较简单的。

5. 看到more你首先会想到哪个单词?

6. 看到as, rather, as well,呢?

例句:

·For a family of four, for example,

·it is more convenient as well as cheaper to sit comfortably at home,

·with almost unlimited entertainment available,

·than to go out

·in search of amusement elsewhere.

·提示:是关于看电视的文章。

·该句主干易确定,it is more A than B.

二、主句简单,而短语众多的句子,需耐心层层剥开。

例1:

What refrigeration(冷藏技术)did effectively promote was marketing --marketing hardware and electricity, marketing soft drinks, marketing dead bodies of animals around the globe in search of a good price.

What refrigeration(冷藏技术) did effectively promote

was marketing

--marketing hardware and electricity, marketing soft drinks, marketing dead bodies of animals

around the globe

in search of a good price.

例2:

Tracking whales is but one example of an exciting new world just opening to civilian scientists after the cold war as the Navy starts to share and partly uncover its global network of underwater listening system built over the decades to track the ships of potential enemies.

三、注意语境陷阱:

对策:看清上下文,确定关键词义。

The fridge is considered a necessity. It has been so since the 1960s when packaged food first appeared with the label: “store in the refrigerator.”

In my fridgeless fifties childhood, I was fed well and healthily.

按照刚才讲的步骤做:

1.把句子快速切割,抓出重点。

2.必要时写下主干汉语意思。

第三节、长难句解剖练习

注意:除以上基本方法外,必须配合逻辑分析(尤其是连词、惯用搭配结构的使用)。

1. The reality that has blocked my path to becoming the typical successful student is that engineering and the liberal arts simply don't mix as easily as I assumed in high school.

2. Robert Foss, a scientist at the University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, says the higher death rates for teenage drivers have less to do with “really stupid behavior” than with just a lack of driving experience.

3. Both he and the author of the study believe that the way to mitigate (缓解)the problem is to have states institute so-called graduated licensing systems, in which getting a license is a multistage process.

4. What is most important, different layers of ocean water can act as channels for sounds, focusing them in the same way a stethoscope (听诊器) does when it carries faint noises from a patient’s chest to a doctor’s ear.

5. The key to preventing or treating behavior problems is learning to teach the dog to redirect its normal behavior to outlets that are acceptable in the domestic setting.

6. Non-smokers remembered 19 percent more of the most important information than active smokers, and deprived smokers bested those who had smoked a cigarette just before testing.

7. Deeply involved with this new technology is a breed of modern businesspeople who have a growing respect for the economic value of doing business abroad.

8. The employee posted abroad who speaks the country's principal language has an opportunity to fast-forward certain negotiations, and can have the cultural insight to know when it is better to move more slowly.

9. Historically, most physical-fitness tests have usually included measures of muscular strength and endurance, not for health-related reasons, but primarily because such fitness components have been related to performance in athletics.

10. “But those who want to ban the bomb for American citizens claim that if you have one locked in the cabinet, with the fuse in a drawer, you would never be able to assemble it in time to stop an intruder (侵入者)”.

11. The report cites two main causes: increasing physical isolation—brought on by high divorce rates and less involvement in community, among other things—and a growing perception that the world is a more dangerous place.
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