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[日期:2010-11-26]   [字体: ]




  The text is mainly about ____.

  The main idea/The general idea/The main purpose is .

  What’s the main point the writer is trying to make in the last paragraph?

  What would be the best title /headline for the text?

  This article mainly tells about the story of ____.

  What is the topic of the text?

  The writer’s purpose in writing this story is ____.

  The subject discussed in this text is ____.

  What does the second paragraph discuss?

  The paragraph (passage) deals with _____.

  Which of the following best summarizes the passage?






  ②有阐述控制性概念(controlling idea),通常在段落的首句或尾句,偶尔也可在一段的中间;



  1. 寻找主题句,确定文章主题

  在许多情况下,尤其在阅读说明文和议论文时,根据其篇章特点我们可以通过寻找短文的主题句来归纳出文章的主题。主题句在文章中的位置通常有三种情况:开头、中间、结尾(含在开头结尾同时出现、首尾呼应的主题句)。因此仔细阅读这类文章或段落的首尾句是关键。做主题概括类试题多采用浏览法(skimming),浏览时,一般不需逐句浏览,只需选读文章的首段, 尾段或每段的首句和尾句,重点搜索主题线索和主题信息。

  例 2004上海高考试题阅读C篇

  We are all interested in equality, but while some people try to protect the school and examination system in the name of equality, others, still in the name of equality, want only to destroy it.

  Any society which is interested in equality of opportunity and standards of achievement must regularly test its pupils. The standards may be changed—no examination is perfect—but to have to tests or examinations would mean the end of equality and of standards. There are groups of people who oppose this view and who do not believe either in examinations or in any controls in school or on teachers. This would mean that everything would depend on luck since every pupil would depend on the efficiency, the values and the purpose of each teacher.

  Without examinations, employers will look for employees from the highly respected schools and from families known to them—a form of favourtism will replace equality. At the moment, the bright child from an ill—respected school can show certificates to prove he or she is suitable for a job, while the lake of certificate indicates the unsuitability of a dull child attending a well—respected school. This defend of excellence and opportunity would disappear if examinations were taken away, and the bright child form a poor family would be a prisoner of his or her school’s reputation, unable to compete for employment with the child from the favoured school.

  The opponents of the examination system suggest that examinations are an evil force because they show differences between pupils. According to these people, there must be no special, different, academic class. They have even suggested that there should be no form of difference in sport or any other area: all jobs or posts should be filled by unsystematic selection. The selection would be made by people who themselves are probably selected by some computer.

  85. The passage mainly focuses on ___________.

  A. schools and certificates

  B. examination and equality

  C. opportunity and employment

  D. standards and reputation

  主题分析 文章第一句We are all interested in equality, but while some people try to protect the school and examination system in the name of equality, others, still in the name of equality, want only to destroy it.即点明文章的主题句:从正反两方面讨论考试作为一种升学就业的手段的公平性及其合理性。所以第85题答案为B“考试与公平”。


  2. 抓住文章段落大意,概括中心思想


  例 2002北京春季B篇

  There are three separate sources of danger in supplying energy by nuclear power(原子能). First,the radioactive material must travel from its place of production to the power station.Although the power stations themselves are strongly built,the containers used for the transport of the materials are not.Normally,only two methods of transport are in use,namely road or rail.Unfortunately,both of these may have an effect on the general public,since they are sure to pass near,or even through,heavily populated areas.

  Second,there is the problem of waste.All nuclear power stations produce wastes that in most cases will remain radioactive for thousands of years.It is impossible to make these wastes nonradioactive,and so they must be stored in one of the inconvenient ways that scientists have invented.For example,they may be buried under the ground,or dropped into deserted mines, or sunk in the sea.However,these methods do not solve the problem,since an earthquake could easily break the containers.

  Third,there may occur the danger of a leak(泄漏)or an explosion at the power station.As with the other two dangers,this is not very likely,so it does not provide a serious objection to the nuclear program.However,it can happen.

  Separately,these three types of dangers are not a GREat cause for worry.Taken together, though,the probability of disaster(灾难)is extremely high.

  64. What is the passage about?

  A. Uses of nuclear power.

  B. Dangers from nuclear power.

  C. Public anger at nuclear power.

  D. Accidents caused by nuclear power.

  主题分析 第一段点明全文主旨:There are three separate sources of danger in supplying energy by nuclear power(原子能).为文章的主题句。接着从三个方面论述主题:First…,Second…,Third… ,段首第一句分别为各段的主题句,层次分明,结构清晰,最后一段作者进一步归纳全文大意:Dangers from nuclear power。此题答案为B。

  3. 抓住文章主线和关键词语,归纳文章中心


  例 NMET1999全国卷A篇51题

  Tom Brennan was working in a Philadelphia office building when he noticed a black bag. The bag contained a book.

  This chance discovery ended a 12-day search by the Library Company of Philadelphia for a historical treasure——a 120-page diary kept 190 years age by Deborah Logan, “a woman who knew everybody in her day,”James GREen,the librarian told the magazine American Libraries.

  Most of the diary is a record of big events in Philadelphia,It also includes a description of British soldiers burning Washington.D. C in the war of 1812.She describes President James Madison on horseback as “perfectly shaking with fear” during the troubled days. George Washington, she writes, mistook her for the wife of a French man, and praised her excellent English.

  The adventure of the lost book began September 4 when Cory Luxmoore arrived from England to deliver the diary of his ancestor(祖先)to the Library Company, which he and his wife considered to be the best home for the diary.

  GREen told American Libraries he had the diary in his possession “about five minutes” when Luxmoore took it back because he had promised to show it to one other person. On returning to his hotel after showing the precious book to Green, Luxmoore was shocked to realize that he had left it in the taxi.

  Without any delay, GREen began calling every taxi company in the city, with no luck, “I’ve felt sick since then, ”Luxmoore told reporters.

  According to GREen, no one has yet learned how the diary came to the office building.

  Tom Brennan received a reward(奖励)of 1,000,Philadelphia gained another treasure for its history, and Luxmoore told reporters, “It’s wonderful news. I’m on high”.

  51. This article mainly tells about the story of _____.

  A. A lost diary B. Deborah

  C. Cory Luxmoore D. The Library Company

  主题分析 解题时必须首先理顺文章时间顺序:

  1. Deborah Logan kept a 120-page diary 190 years ago.

  2. Cory Luxmoore delivered the diary to the library Company.

  3. James GREen, the librarian, had the diary in his possession about five minutes.

  4. Cory Luxmoore left the diary in the taxi.

  5. Tom Brennan noticed a black bag, which contained a book (the diary).

  从以上的时间顺序中,可以清楚地看到整个时间段内所发生的事情均与the diary有关,是贯穿全文的主线,故此题应选A。

  二、 文章标题的选择或拟定



  1. 要在阅读原文的基础上,仔细考虑这句话或短语与文章主题是否有密切的联系;

  2. 再看它对文章的概括性或覆盖面如何;

  3. 要注意题目是过大还是过小;

  4. 要避免下列三种错误:①概括不够(多表现为部分代整体,从而导致范围太小);②过度概括(多表现为人为扩大范围);③以事实、细节替代抽象具体的大意。


  比如某一文章的中心句子为: Coffee is a universal beverage that is served in different ways around the world.


  控制性概念:is a universal beverage that is served in different ways around the world

  标题:Coffee Around the World

  例 2005北京B篇

  Good tool design is important in the prevention of overuse injuries. Well-designed tools and equipment will require less force to operate them and prevent awkward(别扭的)hand positions. They will allow the worker to keep the elbows(肘)next to the body to prevent damage to the shoulder and arm.

  Overuse injuries can therefore be prevented or reduced if the employer provides, and workers use:

  ●power tools rather than having to use muscle(肌肉)power

  ●tools with specially designed handles that allow the wrist(手腕)to keep straight

  (See figure 1). This means that hands and wrists are kept in the same position as they would be if they were hanging relaxed at a person’s side



  Figure l. Bend the tool, not the wrist

  ●tools with handles that can be held comfortably by the whole hand. This means having a selection of sizes-remember that tools that provide a comfortable firm hold for a person with a very large hand may be awkward for someone with a very small hand. This is a particularly important consideration for women who may use tools originally designed for men.

  ●tools that do not press fingers (or flesh) between the handles, and whose handles do not have sharp edges or a small surface area.

  60. What is the best title for the passage?

  A. Good Tool Design for Women.

  B. Importance of Good Tool Design.

  C. Tool Design and Prevention of Injuries.

  D. Overuse of Tools and Worker Protection.

  主题分析 本文是一篇说明文,Good tool design is important in the prevention of overuse injuries.句首第一句先点明文章的主题,“工具的良好设计在防止伤害方面是非常重要的”。下面一段则分别说明了好的工具设计的几项标准。从此可知考题第60题答案为C。选项A和B对文章主题“概括不够”。选项D与主题无关。



  Every year on my birthday, from the time I turned 12, a white gardenia was delivered to my house. No card came with it. Calls to the flower-shop were not helpful at all. After a while I stopped trying to discover the sender’s name and just delighted in the beautiful white flower in soft pink paper.

  But I never stopped imagining who the giver might be. Some of my happiest moments were spent daydreaming about the sender. My mother encouraged these imaginings. She’d ask me if there was someone for whom I had done special kindness. Perhaps it was the old man across the street whose mail I’d delivered during the winter. As a girl, though, I had more fun imagining that it might be a boy I had run into.

  One month before my graduation, my father died. I felt so sad that I became completely uninterested in my upcoming graduation dance, and I didn’t care if I had a new dress or not. But my mother, in her own sadness, would not let me miss any of those things. She wanted her children to feel loved and lovable. In truth, my mother wanted her children to see themselves much like the gardenia lovely, strong and perfect with perhaps a bit of mystery(神秘).

  My mother died ten days after I was married. I was 22. That was the year the gardenia stopped coming.

  41. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

   A. A childhood Dream.

  B. A Mother’s Love.

   C. A Graduation Party.

  D. A Special Birthday.

  主题分析 本文写的是一位母亲在自己女儿成长的过程中以一种独特的方式——每年在女儿生日那天不署名送女儿一束栀子花来表达对女儿的爱。本篇围绕爱来展开,开头写暗送女儿栀子花,并鼓励女儿去想象美好。当女儿遇到挫折时,母亲鼓励女儿要坚强地勇敢地面对困难。以上这些关键事实充分说明了B项A Mother’s Love. 正确。

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